Diamond: From Old French diamant, from Medieval Latin diamantem (nominative diamas), from Vulgar Latin *adiamantem(altered by influence of the many Greek words in dia-), from Latin adamantem (nominative adamans) “the hardest metal,” later, “diamond” (see adamant (n.)). Adamant: Old English aðamans "a very hard stone;" the modern word is a mid-14c. borrowing of Old French adamant "diamond; magnet" or directly from Latin adamantem (nominative adamas) "adamant, hardest iron, steel," also used figuratively, of character, from Greek adamas (genitive adamantos), name of a hypothetical hardest material, noun use of an adjective meaning "unbreakable, inflexible," which was metaphoric of anything unalterable (such as Hades), a word of uncertain origin. It is perhaps literally "invincible, indomitable," from a- "not" (see a- (3)) + daman "to conquer, to tame," from PIE root *deme- "to constrain, force, break (horses)" (see tame (adj.)). "But semantically, the etymology is rather strange," according to Beekes, who suggests it might be a foreign word altered in Greek by folk etymology, and compares Akkadian (Semitic) adamu., Colour: Colourless, yellowish to yellow, brown, black, blue, green or red, pink, champagne-tan, cognac-brown, lilac (very rare), Luster: Adamantine, Greasy, Hardness: 10, Specific gravity: 3.5 - 3.53, Crystal system: Isometric, Diamond is one of the best-known and most sought-after gemstones. Diamonds have been known to humankind and used as decorative items since ancient times; some of the earliest references can be traced to India.
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